Forms of violence against women
Physical violence is a form of domestic (domestic) violence and is manifested by the use of physical force or the threat that it will be used. It covers a wide range of activities such as pushing, hitting, plucking hair, kicking, attacking by throwing objects at the victim, inflicting gunshot wounds, burns and similar acts that may result in minor or serious needs. Physical violence can also have a fatal outcome – attempted murder or homicide, in the most extreme cases.
Psychological violence is manifested through several specific behaviors, including: control, isolation, jealousy and causing emotional suffering to the woman, intimidation, threats, prevention of working outside the home, humiliation or humiliation in front of others, seeking permission for health care, insisting on always know where the victim is and with whom and similar behaviors.
Economic violence is a form of violence that limits and prevents the disposal of personal financial funds, for any purpose, creating a partial or complete economic dependence of the victim. This violence is actually a form of intimate partner and domestic (domestic) violence.
Sexual violence is defined as vaginal, anal, or oral penetration of a sexual nature, with any body part or object in the body of another person without his consent. That includes other acts of a sexual nature with a person without consent, as well as instructing another person to engage in acts of a sexual nature with a third person, also without his or her consent. Women particularly vulnerable to sexual violence are commercial sex workers, women with disabilities, women in institutions, non-heterosexual women, and women of certain ethnic, racial, or religious backgrounds.
Sexual assault is a form of sexual violence and is an act that is not voluntary and occurred through coercion, threat or use of physical force. It is a deliberate act of violence and a manifestation of power, control and domination.
Rape as a form of violence can occur in several forms: rape in an intimate partnership or marriage, rape by a known or unknown person, gang rape, rape in war …
Sexual Harassment in public spaces includes forms of unwanted verbal, non-verbal or physical behavior with a sexual character and connotation, in order to violate the dignity, but also to create a frightening, humiliating and degrading atmosphere and to disturb the comfort of the victim who is the target of this harassment, to feel insecure, and even to be led to think that it could be the target of physical assault or sexual violence.
Stalking is a form of deliberately dangerous behavior towards another person. Such behavior takes the form of threat, instilling fear and putting the victim at risk, who is constantly afraid for his safety. This includes repetitive dangerous behavior that involves monitoring, stalking, establishing unwanted live communication through phone calls and messages, as well as through social networks and modern technologies In doing so, the perpetrator aims to constantly inform the victim that has been observed and monitored, may also turn into physical stalking with
appearing in places where she often moves (workplace, cafes and
restaurants where she goes out, events in public spaces, etc.), and culminates with physical damage to her personal property, threats to hurt the people she loves or her pets, but also identity theft to abuse her name online.
Sexual harassment in the workplace takes the same forms as harassment in public spaces, with the only difference being that it occurs in a place where the victim comes to work and provides for himself and his family. At the same time, an unpleasant, humiliating and degrading atmosphere is created again, which in extreme cases can turn into mobbing, attack, and even force the victim to leave or seek a solution in leaving the workplace,
which brings into question its economic independence and existence.
Forced sterilization is the forced deprivation of female reproductive rights and potential, by performing an operation that terminates the natural ability to reproduce, and the woman is not sufficiently informed about the procedure and has not given explicit consent to such intervention. In addition to the physical inability to reproduce, this form of violence can cause permanent trauma, fear of medical personnel and institutions, isolation from the family, and anger at members who forced or unknowingly agreed to sterilization.
One of the forms of violation of women’s rights is forced abortion, when the family or the husband/partner forces the woman to such an intervention – termination of pregnancy without her knowledge and consent.
Forced (forced) marriages are closely linked to violence against women and the family violence. This way of getting married is another form of deprivation of girls and women of their basic human rights – to choose an intimate or spouse partner – and it creates emotional stress, pressure, and often psychological and physical violence or from members of the her family or the family where she should be “given”. Many studies have shown that forced / arranged marriages often continue with psychological and physical violence from the partner or his family.
A special form of forced and arranged marriages are the minor or child marriages, since it is considered that these children themselves can not decide on such a big step. Getting married early (contractually) can lead to emotional, physical and psychological suffering, but also to prevent and destroy the chances of education and emancipation of these girls.
Femicide is the most severe form of violence against women and can be a direct consequence of domestic or intimate partner violence.
The term femicide means the intentional killing of a woman just because she is a woman.
Broader definitions include all murders of women, girls or girls.
Although in most cases femicides are performed by current or former partners, they can also occur by a family member.
This form of violence has been identified as the leading cause of premature death in women. This is the most extreme manifestation of violence against women, but despite that, there are still limited data about them.
In the Republic of North Macedonia, femicide is not recognized as a separate crime in the Criminal Code and is registered and conducted like any other murder. An aggravating circumstance in court proceedings is the existence of domestic or intimate partner violence that preceded the murder.
Types of femicides
Femicide as a consequence of domestic or intimate partner violence
These murders are also called “intimate partner murders” and are defined as the murder of a woman by an intimate partner or a person with whom she had a close relationship. The definition includes the killing of a woman by a former or current partner or husband, and does not exclude the killing of a woman by another male family member.
If the violence goes unreported or help is not offered to protect the victim, she is more likely to escalate into femicide.
“in the name of honor”
This is the most extreme form of crime, which aims to control the behavior of women. Most often, family members, the so-called “family council” composed of male relatives, decide what will happen to the female family member who made the “mistake” for which he was sentenced to death. This “mistake” or “crime” is associated with choosing a partner, education, work, dress, sexuality, and even “dissatisfaction” with family expectations and standards of “female behavior.”
There are also cases when the family regains its “honor” when the woman / girl was raped. In certain communities around the world, honor killings occur in public, so that the family can “whiten its face” in front of the whole community or social group, condemning to death the woman / girl who “embarrassed” them.
Also forms of femicide are also recognized as dowry homicides; murder when the female member is a “burden” on the family or spouse; murders related to organized crime, which are related to “macho culture”; premeditated murders of women at war; female infanticide and gender based sex selective feticide, in societies where the birth of a male child is glorified, and are manifests itself with intentional abortions when the sex of the child is known; murder when women are labeled as witches / wizards; misogynistic killing of women; as well as murders of women due to sexual orientation, gender identity, gender determination and so on.